Allied Warships

Events on this day

25 July

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This page is our compilation of data from several different databases. All data shown here is dynamic, but is accurate according to the information we have right now. Although content is still being added daily, more than 75% of the launched and commissioned data is already in place, so this section is almost complete.

Quick links: War losses - General events

The Shipyard Report


Laid down (22)

1916: Royal Dutch Navy Submarine K VII

1933: Royal Canadian Navy Destroyer Saskatchewan (H 70) - Royal Navy Destroyer Fortune (H 70)

1935: Italian Navy Sloop Eritrea

1939: Royal Navy MS Trawler Chestnut (T 110) - Royal Navy MS Trawler Whitethorn (T 127)

1940: Royal Navy MS Trawler Arran (T 06) - Royal Navy Minesweeper Poole (J 147) - Royal Navy Submarine Sceptre (P 215)

1942: Royal Navy Minesweeper BYMS 2073 (J 873) - US Navy Minesweeper Chief (AM 315) - US Navy Destroyer Ordronaux (DD 617) - US Navy Patrol craft PC-1194 (PC-1194)

1943: US Navy Frigate Hingham (PF-30) - US Navy Patrol craft PCE-845 (PCE-845) - US Navy Destroyer Strong (ii) (DD 758)

1944: US Navy Escort carrier Bairoko (CVE 115) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 1258 (LCT 1258) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 848 (LCT 848) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 806 (LST 806) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 940 (LST 940) - US Navy Patrol craft PGM-24 (PGM-24)

Launched (55)

1918: Royal Navy Destroyer Lancaster (G 05) - Royal Navy Minesweeper Saltash (J 62) - US Navy Destroyer Philip (i) (DD 76)

1929: Royal Navy MS Trawler Liberator (FY 1650)

1930: Royal Navy Destroyer Brazen (H 80)

1933: Royal Navy ASW Trawler Derby County (FY 171) - Royal Navy ASW Trawler Spurs (FY 168)

1934: United States Coast Guard Cutter Algonquin (WPG 75)

1938: Soviet Navy Flotilla leader Baku

1941: Royal Canadian Navy Corvette Dundas (K 229) - Royal Navy Escort destroyer Hursley (L 84) - Royal Navy Corvette Thyme (K 210) - Royal Hellenic Navy Escort destroyer Kriti (L 84) - US Navy Destroyer Bristol (i) (DD 453) - US Navy Destroyer Ellyson (DD 454) - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-508 (SC-508)

1942: Royal Australian Navy Minesweeper Wagga (J 315) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Tank LCT 347 (LCT 347) - Royal Navy Mooring vessel Moorgrass - US Navy Destroyer Champlin (DD 601) - US Navy Fleet tug Chippewa (AT 69) - US Navy Oiler Patuxent (AO 44) - US Navy Patrol craft PC-1191 (PC-1191) - US Navy Patrol craft PC-577 (PC-577) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 121 - US Navy Minesweeper Requisite (AM 109) - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-1003 (SC-1003) - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-712 (SC-712) - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-713 (SC-713) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-111 (YMS-111)

1943: US Navy Submarine Bashaw (241) - US Navy Destroyer Bearss (DD 654) - US Navy Destroyer Escort Eldridge (DE 173) - US Navy Destroyer Escort Harmon (DE 678) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 271 (LST 271) - US Navy Frigate Muskegon (PF-24) - US Navy Minesweeper Peril (AM 272) - US Navy Minesweeper Phantom (AM 273) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 450 - US Navy Destroyer Remey (DD 688) - US Navy Destroyer Yarnall (ii) (DD 541)

1944: Royal Navy Destroyer Carysfort (R 25) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-1080 (LCI(L)-1080) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-782 (LCI(L)-782) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 1131 (LCT 1131) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 1132 (LCT 1132) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 1197 (LCT 1197) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 1328 (LCT 1328) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 1332 (LCT 1332) - US Navy Landing craft tank LCT 847 (LCT 847) - US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 270 (LSM 270) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 716 (LST 716) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 758 (LST 758)

1945: Royal Navy Sloop Actaeon (U 07) - Royal Navy Tank landing ship LST 3524 (LST 3524)

Commissioned (44)

1919: Royal Navy Heavy cruiser Hawkins (D 86) - US Navy Destroyer MacKenzie (i) (DD 175)

1922: Royal Dutch Navy Minelayer Van Meerlant (M 36)

1927: United States Coast Guard Patrol vessel Antietam (WPC 128)

1940: Royal Canadian Navy Armed Yacht Reindeer - Royal Navy Motor Anti-Submarine Boat MA/SB 52 (MA/SB 52) - US Navy Destroyer Benson (DD 421)

1941: Free French Navy Motor Launch ML 267 (ML 267) - Royal Navy Motor Anti-Submarine Boat MA/SB 29 (MA/SB 29) - Royal Navy Motor Gun Boat MGB 330 (MGB 330) - US Navy Net tender Boxwood (AN 8) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 42 - Soviet Navy Submarine S-55

1942: Royal Navy Motor Gun Boat MGB 603 (MGB 603) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-125 (YMS-125)

1943: Royal Navy Tank landing ship LST 82 (LST 82) - Royal Navy Submarine Tantivy (P 319)

1944: Royal Canadian Navy Frigate Coaticook (K 410) - Royal Canadian Navy Corvette Copper Cliff (K 495) - Royal Canadian Navy Minesweeper Coquitlam (J 364) - Royal Navy Landing Ship Infantry Empire Arquebus (F 170) - Royal Navy Landing Ship Infantry Empire Battleaxe (F 161) - Royal Navy Landing Ship Infantry Empire Mace (F 171) - Royal Navy Landing Ship Infantry Empire Spearhead (F 172) - Royal Navy Harbour Defence Motor Launch HDML 1456 (ML 1456) - Royal Navy Harbour Defence Motor Launch HDML 1466 (ML 1466) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Tank LCT 1146 (LCT 1146) - Royal Navy Frigate Papua (K 588) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-1031 (LCI(L)-1031) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-1079 (LCI(L)-1079) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-655 (LCI(L)-655) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-774 (LCI(L)-774) - US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 266 (LSM 266) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 1031 (LST 1031) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 580 (LST 580) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 681 (LST 681) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 777 (LST 777) - US Navy Fleet tug Moctobi (ATF 105) - US Navy Patrol craft PC-1549 (PC-1549) - US Navy Patrol craft PCE-893 (PCE-893) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-448 (YMS-448)

1945: Royal Navy Tank landing ship LST 3506 (LST 3506) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 611 - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-437 (YMS-437)

Legend:

Laid down means that the ship's construction was officially started by laying down the keel (often just a single steel beam but could also mean the first of many pre-fabricated sections).

Launched means that the ship was launched from its shipyard, it then began its fitting out period (installation of smaller systems, weapons etc.) - in many yards the ships were launched very complete and needed little work afterwards.

Commissioned is when the navy takes the ship officially over and gives command of it to its new captain.

War Losses on 25 July (2)


1942: Royal Navy MS Trawler Laertes (i) (T 137)

1946: US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 60 (LSM 60)

More information on Allied Warships losses.


General Events on 25 July


1940

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Liverpool: Between 1145 and 1405 hours (zone -3), HMS Liverpool (Capt. A.D. Read, RN), fuelled from tanker Turbo (4782 GRT, built 1912) south off Spetses island (off the Argolic Gulf).

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 9: HrMs O 9 (Lt. H.A.W. Goossens, RNN) participated in A/S exercises off Tobermory with HMS Fandango (T/Lt. F.C. Hopkins, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Porpoise: HMS Porpoise (Cdr. P.Q. Roberts, RN) departed Immingham for her 7th war patrol. She was ordered to lay a minefield off the west coast of Denmark. After laying this minefield she was to patrol off Lister, Norway. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Porpoise during this patrol see the map below. No positions are known for 1 August 1940 and onwards.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Rorqual: HMS Rorqual (Lt.Cdr R.H. Dewhurst, RN) ended her 6th war patrol (3rd in the Mediterranean) at Alexandria.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Taku: HMS Taku (Lt.Cdr. V.J.H. Van der Byl, RN) conducted exercises off Rosyth.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Talisman: HMS Talisman (Lt.Cdr. P.S. Francis, RN) conducted attack exercises in the Clyde area with HMS Otway (Lt. G.C.I.St.B.S. Watkins, RN) and HMS Breda (Capt.(Retd.) A.E. Johnston, RN).

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Naiad: Around 2030 hours, HMS Naiad (Capt. M.H.A. Kelsey, DSC, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral E.L.S. King, CB, MVO, RN) departed Rosyth for Scapa Flow. She was not being escorted.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Bonaventure (i): HMS Bonaventure (Capt. H.J. Egerton, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Boreas: HMS Boreas (Lt.Cdr. M.W. Tomkinson, RN) and HMS Brilliant (Lt.Cdr. F.C. Brodrick, RN) were damaged by a German air attack in the English Channel. 22 of the crew of Boreas were killed in the attack. Brilliant sustained no casualties. Boreas completed repairs ca. mid-January 1941 and Brilliant completed repairs ca. mid-September 1940.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Kandahar: HMS Kandahar (Cdr. W.G.A. Robson, RN) departed Aden. She returned the following day [no further details known].

1941

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Newcastle: HMS Newcastle (Capt. E.A. Aylmer, DSC, RN) intercepts the German merchant Erlangen (6101 GRT) was intercepted south-east off the River Plate estuary. However before the ship could be captured the ship was set on fire by its own crew.

Royal Dutch Navy Light cruiser HNMS Tromp: HrMs Tromp (Cdr. J.B. de Meester, RNN) returned to Surabaya.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 14: HrMs O 14 (Lt.Cdr. G. Quint, RNN(R)) conducted A/S exercises at / off Scapa Flow with HMS Punjabi (Cdr. S.A. Buss, MVO, RN), HMS Charlestown (Lt.Cdr. T. Johnston, RN), HMS Castleton (Cdr. (Retd.) F.H.E. Skyrme, RN) and HMS Croome (Lt.Cdr. J.D. Hayes, RN).

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 9: HrMs O 9 (Lt. H.A.W. Goossens, RNN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown together with HMS Shemara (Cdr.(Retd.) H. Buckle, RN) and HMS Spaniel (Skr. C. Coultas, DSC, RNR). Upon completion of these exercises she proceeded to Rothesay.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Oberon: HMS Oberon (Lt.Cdr. E.F. Pizey, DSC, RN) conducted exercises in the Clyde area for the C.O.Q.C. (Commanding Officers Qualifying Course) with HrMs Z 5 (Lt. J.J. Steensma, RNN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Otway: HMS Otway (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J.R.G. Harvey, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Otus: HMS Otus (Lt. R.M. Favell, RN) is ordered to proceed direct to Alexandria.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Severn: HMS Severn (Lt.Cdr. A.N.G. Campbell, RN) conducted exercises off Gibraltar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Clyde: HMS Clyde (Cdr. D.C. Ingram, DSC, RN) detached from convoy HG 68.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tribune: HMS Tribune (Lt.Cdr. W.A.K.N. Cavaye, RN) conducted exercises off Blyth with a training class of new submariners.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tetrarch: HMS Tetrarch (Lt.Cdr. G.H. Greenway, RN) twice attacked the Greek merchant (in German service) Olympos (852 GRT, built 1904) near Gaidaro Island, Greece. The vessel is not hit. (All times are zone -3) 0600 hours - Sighted a merchant ship (two masts, funnel aft, about 1000 tons) bearing 315°, range about 12000 yards. Started attack. 0645 hours - Fired one torpedo from 400 yards. The torpedo failed to run straight so it missed astern. The torpedo was later heard to explode on the shore. 0901 hours - Found the same ship as earlier anchored off Cape Colonna. Closed to 1800 yards and fired one torpedo. This torpedo slightly ran to Port and just missed astern of the target. The torpedo exploded on the beach. Olympos was escorted by the Italian minesweeper R.D.9. One torpedo was later recovered by the German patrol vessel 12 V 10 and brought to Piraeus on 27 July.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Thrasher: HMS Thrasher (Lt.Cdr. P.J. Cowell, DSC, RN) conducted torpedo discharge trials off Arrochar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 28: HMS H 28 (Lt. P.S. Skelton, RN) arrived at Rothesay.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 32: HMS H 32 (Lt. B.G. Heslop, DSC, RN) departed Rothesay for Londonderry.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 34: HMS H 34 (Lt. H. Winter, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Valena (Lt.Cdr. A.F.C. Gray, RNR) and HMS Bedlington (Skr. J.H.D. Dansie, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 43: HMS H 43 (Lt. J.D. Martin, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Lough Foyle.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Jaguar: HMNZS Leander (Capt. R.H. Bevan, RN), HMS Latona (Capt. S.L. Bateson, RN) and HMS Jaguar (Lt.Cdr. J.F.W. Hine, RN) embarked troops for Farmagusta at Port Said. The troops were landed there during the night of 25/26 July. At Farmagusta HMS Jaguar and HMS Latona (Capt. S.L. Bateson, RN) collided. After disembarking the troops HMS Latona and HMS Jaguar departed Farmagusta for Haifa while HMNZS Leander proceeded to Alexandria where she arrived at 1715/26.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Achates (i): While taking position in the screen of the carriers preparing to launch an air strike against Kirkenes/Petsamo, HMS Achates (Lt.Cdr. Viscount Jocelyn, RN) was mined and severely damaged off the Seidisfjord, Iceland in position 64°11'N, 13°00'W. Achates was under repair until mid-March 1942.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Decoy: HMAS Stuart (Capt. H.M.L. Waller, DSO, RAN) and HMS Decoy (Lt.Cdr. J.M. Alliston, RN), both loaded with supplies, departed Alexandria for Tobruk.

1942

Royal Norwegian Navy Submarine HNoMS Uredd: HNoMS Uredd (Lt. Røren) was informed of the presence of a U-boat to the south of her position was unable to intercept.

Royal Dutch Navy Light cruiser HNMS Tromp: HrMs Tromp (Cdr. J.B. de Meester, RNN), USS Holland (Cdr. P.E. Pendelton, USN) and the US submarines USS Seal (Lt.Cdr. K.C. Hurd, USN) and USS Saury (Lt.Cdr. L.S. Mewhinney, USN) arrived at Fremantle.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS K XIV: HrMs K XIV (Lt. J.H. Geijs, RNN) conducted trials off Bombay.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS K XV: HrMs K XV (Lt.Cdr. Baron C.W.T. van Boetzelaer, RNN) arrived at Colombo.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 10: HrMs O 10 (Lt. Baron D.T. Mackay, RNN) conducted torpedo firing trials in Loch Long with 45 cm torpedoes from the USN.

US Navy Submarine USS Seawolf: USS Seawolf (Lt.Cdr. F.B. Warder) departed from Fremantle for her 6th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Sulu and Celebes Seas.

US Navy Submarine USS Guardfish: USS Guardfish (Lt.Cdr. T.B. Klakring) arrived at Pearl Harbor.

US Navy Submarine USS Albacore: USS Albacore (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Lake, USN) arrived at Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone from New London, Connecticut.

US Navy Submarine USS Flying Fish: USS Flying Fish (Lt.Cdr. G.R. Donaho) ended her 1st war patrol at Midway.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Otway: HMS Otway (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J.R.G. Harvey, RN) conducted exercises in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Porpoise: HMS Porpoise (Lt. L.W.A. Bennington, DSC, RN) arrived at Haifa.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unique: HMS Unique (Lt. R.E. Boddington, RN) departed Sheerness for Portsmouth with convoy CW.110.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unrivalled: HMS P 45 (Lt. H.B. Turner, RN) is undocked. She then made a trial dive in Scapa Flow.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 32: HMS H 32 (Lt. J. Whitton, RN) was undocked.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 33: HMS H 33 (Lt. D. Lambert, DSC, RN) shifted from Rothesay to Ardrishaig.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 44: HMS H 44 (Lt. J.P. Fyfe, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Lough Foyle.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS P 511: HMS P 511 (Lt. D.E.O. Watson, DSC, RN) participated in A/S exercises at Scapa Flow.

US Navy Submarine USS R-2: USS R-2 (Lt. D.T. Hammond, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-4: USS R-4 (Lt. P.W. Garnett, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-10: USS R-10 (Lt.Cdr. B.E. Lewellen, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-13: USS R-13 (Lt. A.R. Gallaher, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

Soviet Navy Submarine USSR ShCh-402: At 0725 hours ShCh-402 fires three torpedoes against ' what is identified as ' a German U-boat south-east of Vard?, Norway in position 70°11'N, 31°40'E. All three torpedoes missed their target.

Soviet Navy Submarine USSR ShCh-406: At 1237 hours, while in the Aland Sea, ShCh-406 fires two torpedoes against ' what is identified as ' a merchant of 8000 GRT with four escorts. Both torpedoes missed their target.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS L 27: HMS L 27 (Lt. G.D.N. Milner, DSC, RN) conducted exercises in Block Island Sound.

1943

US Navy Battleship USS Iowa: USS Iowa (Capt. J.L. McCrea, USN) was docked at the Boston Navy Yard.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 9: HrMs O 9 (Lt. J.B.M.J. Maas, RNN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Spaniel and HMS Boarhound (Skr. A. Keable, RNR). Upon completion of these exercises she proceeded to Ardishaig.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 10: HrMs O 10 (Lt.Cdr. Baron D.T. Mackay, RNN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS St. Modwen (Lt.Cdr. J.M. Lycett, RD, RNR) and HMS L'Incomprise (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) F.S. Deveson, RNR).

US Navy Submarine USS Sculpin: USS Sculpin (Lt.Cdr. L.H. Chappell) left Midway for her 8th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol of Formosa.

US Navy Submarine USS Sailfish: USS Sailfish (Lt.Cdr. William R. Lefavour) departed from Midway for her 9th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Formosa Strait and off Okinawa.

US Navy Submarine USS Bluefish: USS Bluefish (Lt.Cdr. G.E. Porter, USN) transited the Panama Canal.

US Navy Submarine USS Pompon: USS Pompon (Lt.Cdr. E.C. Hawk) torpedoed and sank the Japanese army cargo ship Thames Maru (5871 GRT) and torpedoed and damaged the Japanese troop transport Kinsen Maru (3081 GRT) between the Caroline and Admiralty Islands in position 02°46'N, 148°35'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Balao: USS Balao (Cdr. R.H. Crane, USN) departed from Brisbane for her 1st war patrol. She was ordered to patrol between Truk and the Bismarck Archipelago. For the daily positions of USS Balao during this patrol see the map below. As no deck log is available (for the moment) positions were taken from the patrol report. Unfortunately the patrol report does not give daily noon positions.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Severn: During the nights of 24/25 and 25/26 July 1943, HMS Severn (Lt.Cdr. A.N.G. Campbell, RN), tried to make contact with the party's ashore. On one night a signal was received that the embarkation place was compromised. The operation was reluctantly abandoned.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Safari: HMS Safari (Lt. R.B. Lakin, DSO, DSC, RN) sank the Italian auxiliary minesweeper FR 70 (ex French La Coubre, 120 GRT) gunfire North-West of the Island of Elba in position 42°47'N, 10°05'E. (All times are zone -1) 0715 hours - Heard HE coming from inshore. This soon turned out to be a large 3-masted schooner bound for Bastia. 0736 hours - Surfaced in position 42°51'N, 10°04'E and chased the schooner. 0742 hours - Sighted a ship approaching from beyond the schooner. She could not be clearly made out due to the mirage effect. 0745 hours - Dived when it was sighted to be an A/S trawler. Decided to attack this trawler with torpedoes and then to follow up on the schooner. 0819 hours - Fired 2 torpedoes from 1000 yards. Both missed. The schooner was now seen to be smaller than first thought. 0823 hours - Surfaced and engaged the trawler with the 3" gun. 38 Rounds were fired for many hits. 0829 hours - Observed a large single funneled merchant liner. Broke off the action to intercept. The sea suddenly looked full of small ships all firing. Almost immediately the merchant was seen to turn 180 degrees and made back for the Italian mainland. 0832 hours - Re-opened fire on the trawler. Fired 20 rounds for 19 hits. Soon she was on fire and sinking. 0839 hours - Dived. Several landing barges and shore batteries had now also opened fire. 0850 hours - The target was seen to sink in position 42°47'N, 10°05'E. Twenty-nine survivors were picked up, six were missing.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Saracen: HMS Saracen (Lt. M.G.R. Lumby, DSO, DSC, RN) was docked at Algiers to inspect for damage from the recent depth charging and periodical docking. As there is no log available for August it is not known when she was undocked but this must have been on one of the first days of August.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Satyr: HMS Satyr (Lt. T.S. Weston, RN) ended her 3rd war patrol at Portsmouth.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Shakespeare: HMS Shakespeare (Lt. M.F.R. Ainslie, DSC, RN) departed Malta for her 9th war patrol (6th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to perform a special operation (beach reconnaissances of the Gulf of Gioia by COPP 5). For the daily and attack positions of HMS Shakespeare during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stoic: HMS Stoic (Lt. P.B. Marriott, DSO, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow to participate in A/S exercises.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stonehenge: HMS Stonehenge (Lt. D.S.M. Verschoyle-Campbell, DSC and Bar, RN) departed Scapa Flow for Holy Loch. She was escorted by the armed yacht HMS White Bear (Cdr. J.F. Drake, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stubborn: HMS Stubborn (Lt. A.A. Duff, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow. At Scapa Flow she is to participate in exercises including exercises and practice attacks for the C.O.Q.C. (Commanding Officers Qualifying Course).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Surf: HMS Surf (Lt. D. Lambert, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Gibraltar with aircraft.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Truant: HMS Truant (Lt.Cdr. J.G. Hopkins, RN) conducted noise trials at Loch Goil.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tactician: HMS Tactician (Lt.Cdr. A.F. Collett, DSC, RN) ended her 5th war patrol (4th in the Mediterranean) at Beirut.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tally-Ho: HMS Tally-Ho (Lt.Cdr. L.W.A. Bennington, DSO, DSC, RN) sighted two U-boats this day. Both could not be attacked. (All times are zone -2) 0809 hours - Sighted the conning tower of a U-boat about 8000/9000 yards away. The U-boat was in position 45°50'N, 05°17'W The course of the U-boat was 60 to 90° (so she must be returning to base). Before Tally-Ho could turn on a firing course the U-boat had disappeared into the morning haze. (German U-boat U-667 was in this area and was returning to St. Nazaire, where she arrived the following day) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1158 hours - Sighted a U-boat steering south-west in position 45°54'N, 05°18'W. Closed to start an attack. 1209 hours - The U-boat was now seen steering 230° at a speed of about 8 to 10 knots. The range was between 5000/6000 yards. Before the U-boat could be attacked it was seen to dive. (German U-boat U-404 that had left St. Nazaire for patrol the previous day and was most likely in this area (She was lost a few days later with all hands, so this can't be cross checked). Two other U-boats were also in transfer to their patrol areas, these were U-262 and U-760. They had left La Pallice the previous day but were a bit further south and west)

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tantalus: HMS Tantalus (Lt.Cdr. H.S. Mackenzie, DSO and Bar, RN) conducted exercises off Larne.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tantivy: HMS Tantivy (Cdr. M.G. Rimington, DSO, RN) conducted full power trials on the Arran measured mile.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unrivalled: HMS Unrivalled (Lt. H.B. Turner, DSC, RN) damaged the Italian tug Z 10 / Iseo (80 GRT) and a schooner with gunfire off Cape Vaticano. Both vessels were beached. (All times are zone -2) 1130 hours - Sighted a small tug towing a two-masted schooner. They were northbound. 1215 hours - Surfaced in position 38°36'N, 15°49'E on the enemy's port quarter and engaged both vessels with the gun at a range of 1800 yards and closing. Both ships were beached after being damaged. Unrivalled was then forced to dive due to gunfire from the shore. Retired to seaward.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Varangian: HMS Varangian (Lt. J. Nash, DSC, RN) conducted trials in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 32: HMS H 32 (Lt. J.A.R. Troup, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMCS Assiniboine (Cdr. K.F. Adams, RCN), HMS Abelia (Lt. F.A. Everett, RNR) and HMS Northern Reward (Lt. J.D. Weaver, RNVR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 33: HMS H 33 (T/Lt. C.P. Thode, RNZNVR) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Battleship HMS Malaya: The battleship HMS Malaya (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN) shifted from Scapa Flow to Port H.H.Z. (Loch Cairnbawn) where she was to participate in special trials. During the passage she was escorted by the destroyers HMS Saumarez (Lt.Cdr. E.N. Walmsley, DSC, RN), HMS Scorpion (Lt.Cdr. W.S. Clouston, RN) and HMS Impulsive (Lt. P. Bekenn, RN). The destroyers returned to Scapa Flow later the same day.

US Navy Submarine USS S-35: USS S-35 (Lt. H.S. Monroe) ended her 6th war patrol at Dutch Harbour.

US Navy Submarine USS R-10: USS R-10 (Lt.Cdr. E.D`H. Haskins, USN or Lt. G.F. Sharp, USN) suffered a small fire at Key West. Only slight damage was sustained.

Soviet Navy Submarine USSR M-112: M-112 fires two torpedoes at a German barge off Yalta in position 44°31'N, 34°19'E. Both torpedoes missed their target.

1944

US Navy Destroyer USS De Haven (ii): USS De Haven (Cdr. J.B. Dimmick) arrived at San Diego, California.

US Navy Battleship USS Iowa: USS Iowa (Capt. J.L. McCrea, USN) Topped off four of the destroyers of the Task Group, USS Cotten (Cdr. F.T. Sloat, USN), USS Ingersoll (Cdr. A.C. Veasey, USN), USS Dortch (Cdr. R.C. Young, USN) and USS Sterett (Lt.Cdr. F.J.L. Blouin, USN), with fuel.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 15: HrMs O 15 (Lt. J.B.M.J. Maas, RNN) conducted A/S exercises off Lough Foyle with HMCS Wentworth (T/Lt.Cdr. R.J.C. Pringle, RCNVR) and HMCS Ville de Quebec (T/A/Lt.Cdr. H.C. Hatch, RCNVR).

US Navy Submarine USS Stingray: USS Stingray (Lt.Cdr. S.C. Loomis, Jr) leaves base for her 12th war patrol. She was ordered to land 15 Filipino officers and men and six tons of supplies on the north-eastern coast of Luzon.

US Navy Submarine USS Besugo: USS Besugo (Cdr. T.L. Wogan, USN) departed New London, Connecticut for Key West, Florida.

US Navy Submarine USS Segundo: USS Segundo (Lt.Cdr. J.D. Fulp, Jr.) arrived at Pearl Harbor.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Clyde: HMS Clyde (Lt.Cdr. R.S. Brookes, DSO, DSC, RN) departed Exmouth Gulf for Fremantle.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Porpoise: HMS Porpoise (Lt.Cdr. H.A.L. Marsham, OBE, RN) was undocked.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Shakespeare: HMS Shakespeare (Lt. D. Swanston, DSC and Bar, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Larne with HMCS Huntsville (T/Lt. C.B. Hermann, RCNVR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stratagem: HMS Stratagem (Lt. C.R. Pelly, DSC, RN) was docked again in AFD 26 at Trincomalee.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Shalimar: At 1600 hours, HMS Shalimar (Lt. W.G. Meeke, DSC, MBE, RN) made rendez-vouz with her escort HMS Shikari (Lt. E.H.U. Cautley, RNVR) in position 59.00'N, 01.00'W. At 2045 hours they were joined by Varne (Lt. I.G. Raikes, DSC, RN). They then proceeded together to Holy Loch.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stygian: HMS Stygian (Lt. G.S.C. Clarabut, DSO, RN) departed Malta for Aden.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Taku: HMS Taku (T/Lt. P.S. Parmenter, RNR) conducted exercises off Blyth with a training class of new submariners.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tuna: HMS Tuna (A/Lt.Cdr. L.F.L. Hill, RNR) conducted trials off North Berwick.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Thrasher: HMS Thrasher (Lt.Cdr. M.F.R. Ainslie, DSO, DSC, RN) returned to Holy Loch on completion of her exercises.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trusty: HMS Trusty (Lt. L.E. Herrick, DSO, RN) conducts attack exercises for the Commanding Officer Qualifying Course with HMS Devonshire (Capt. D.K. Bain, DSO, RN) and HMS Achilles (Capt. F.J. Butler, CBE, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trenchant: HMS Trenchant (Lt.Cdr. A.R. Hezlet, DSC, RN) departed from Trincomalee for her 1st war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off the West coast of Sumatra. She is also to perform a special operation. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Trenchant during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trump: HMS Trump (Cdr. E.F. Balston, DSO, RN) conducted torpedo discharge trials off Arrochar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unbending: HMS Unbending (Lt. J. Whitton, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Blyth with a training class of new submariners.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS United: HMS United (Lt. M.D. Hutley, RNR) departed Fishguard for Rothesay. She was escorted by HMS Blade (T/A/Lt.Cdr. S.T. Wenlock, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Untamed: HMS Vitality (Lt. K.S. Renshaw, DSC, RNR) conducted exercises in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Varangian: HMS Varangian (Lt. G.J. Glennie, RANVR) participated in A/S exercises off Tobermory.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unswerving: HMS Unswerving (T/Lt. M.D. Tattersall, RNVR) was docked in No.1 dock at Malta.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Urtica: HMS Urtica (Lt. K.H. Martin, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Shemara (Cdr.(Retd. H. Buckle, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Varne: Varne (Lt. I.G. Raikes, DSC, RN) departed Dundee for Holy Loch. She was escorted by HMS ML 229 (T/Lt. W.C.R. Walsh, RNVR) until 2045 hours when she joined HMS Shalimar (Lt. W.G. Meeke, DSC, MBE, RN) and her escort HMS Shikari (Lt. E.H.U. Cautley, RNVR) for onward passage.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vivid: HMS Vivid (Lt. J.C. Varley, RN) ended her 4th war patrol (2nd in the Mediterranean) at Malta.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 28: HMS H 28 (T/Lt. W.A. Shrimplin, RNVR) shifted Rothesay to Kames Bay where she was docked for the removal of her batteries.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 32: HMS H 32 (Lt. I.M. Stoop, DSC, RN) conducted independent exercises off Lough Foyle.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 43: HMS H 43 (Lt. F.R. Lawrence, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 44: HMS H 44 (Lt. R.C. Bucknall, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 50: HMS H 50 (Lt. W.T.J. Fox, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Bedlington (Skr. A.W. Peak, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS P 512: HMS P 512 (Lt. J.A. Wingate, DSC, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Bermuda.

US Navy Submarine USS R-1: USS R-1 (Lt. W.A. Schoenfeld, USN) conducted exercises off Bermuda.

US Navy Submarine USS R-2: USS R-2 (Lt.Cdr. L.G. Bernard, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-4: USS R-4 (Lt. D.C. Peto, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-11: USS R-11 (Lt.Cdr. W.B. Parham, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-13: USS R-13 (Lt.Cdr. D.L. Mehlop, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-14: USS R-14 (Lt.Cdr. R. Holden, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS L 23: HMS L 23 (Lt. H.R. Murray, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Digby.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS L 27: HMS L 27 (Lt. J.N. Elliott, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Bermuda with HMCS Mahone (T/Lt. L.R. Hoar, RCNVR), HMCS Border Cities (Lt. B.P. Young, RCNR) and HMS Foam (Lt. W.J.H. Moorman, DSC, RN).

US Navy Tank landing ship USS LST 616: left New York in convoy HXM 301 for England and arrived 8 August.

1945

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS K XV: HrMs K XV (Lt.Cdr. Baron C.W.T. van Boetzelaer, RNN) departed Darwin for Fremantle. For the daily positions of HrMs K XV during this passage see the map below.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 15: HrMs O 15 (Lt. R.W. van Lynden, RNN) arrived at Dundee.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS Tijgerhaai: HrMs Tijgerhaai (Lt.Cdr. A. van Altena, RNN) is docked at Holy Loch.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS Dolfijn: HrMs Dolfijn (Lt.Cdr. J.B.M.J. Maas, RNN) conducted exercises off Dundee.

US Navy Submarine USS Barb: USS Barb (Cdr. E.B. Fluckey) sank a Japanese sampan with gunfire in position 49°04'N, 143°49'E and 5 more in position 48°53'N, 144°19'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Cod: USS Cod (Lt.Cdr. E.M. Westbrook, Jr.) sank a Japanese sampan with gunfire in the South China Sea off the east coast of Malaya in position 05°08'N, 103°35'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Dace: USS Dace (Cdr. O.R. Cole, Jr.) ended her 7th war patrol at Midway.

US Navy Submarine USS Peto: USS Peto (Lt.Cdr. R.H. Caldwell, Jr.) sank a Japanese sampan with gunfire south of Honshu in position 34°23'N, 137°25'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Aspro: USS Aspro (Cdr. J.H. Ashley, Jr., USN) torpedoed and sank a Japanese tug to the south-east of Tokyo Bay. (All times are zone -9) 0355 hours - In position 35°01'N, 140°04'E sighted smoke on horizon followed by the sighting of masts of several small vessels rounding Nojima Saki lighthouse. 0427 hours - The contact developed into two heavily smoking tugs towing a dredger. Decided to fire two torpedoes at the largest tug thought to be of 400-500 tons. 0618 hours - In position 34°57'N, 140°04'E fired two torpedoes from a range of about 750 yards. The first torpedo hit amidships tearing a large hole in her side underneath her stack. Took pictures through the periscope. 0621 hours - The target rolled over and sank. The other tug picked up the survivors and went alongside the dredge.

US Navy Submarine USS Besugo: USS Besugo (Lt.Cdr. H.E. Miller, USN) ended her 5th war patrol at Fremantle.

US Navy Submarine USS Blackfin: USS Blackfin (Lt.Cdr. W.L. Kitch, USN) conducted exercises off Midway together with USS Loeser (Lt.Cdr. J. Proctor, USNR), USS Sicard (Lt. A.G. Fenley, USNR), USS PC-778 (Lt. F.J. Whittlessey, USNR), USS ATR-26 (Lt. R. MacLetchie, USNR), USS ATR-63 (Lt. R.W. Coffey, USN).

US Navy Submarine USS Blenny: USS Blenny (Cdr. W.H. Hazzard, USN) sank two sailing vessels with gunfire off the east coast of Malaya. (All times are zone I, -9) 0624 hours - While in position 05°18'N, 103°05'E sighted a sampan without her sails up on a southbound course proceeding at a very slow speed. 0649 hours - In position 05°49'N, 102°46'E commenced firing with .50 cal. The target was quickly ablaze from stem to stern. Can smell gasoline and kerosine. 0655 hours - Sighted some 15 anchored junks, schooners and sampans in the lee of Pulo Kapas Island. Closed. 0737 hours - In position 05°48'N, 102°51'E. The crews of all vessels were seen to have left their ships taken to boats or to the water. Commenced firing with 40mm at a sampan. 0742 hours - The sampan is on fire blazing merrily and giving off heavy black smoke. 0750 hours - Fired one round of 5" but it missed. Secured all guns and made off for deeper water. The sampan meanwhile was an inferno of flame and black smoke.

US Navy Submarine USS Bugara: USS Bugara (Cdr. A.F. Schade, USN) sank six small vessels with gunfire in the Gulf of Siam. (All times are zone I, -9) 1405 hours - In position 07°06'N, 101°23'E boarded a 75 tons schooner. The cargo was 50 tons of rice for Singapore. Removed the crew and sank the schooner with gunfire. Ammunition used 3 rounds of 5" and 10 rounds of 40mm. 1535 hours - In position 06°56'N, 101°38'E boarded a 25 ton junk carrying a Japanese cargo of sugar and matches from Singapore. Sank the ship with gunfire. Ammunition used 2 rounds of 5" and rounds of 40mm. 1624 hours - In position 06°52'N, 101°46'E boarded an empty coaster. The crew had already abandoned ship. We left it to take care of it later. 1650 hours - In position 06°50'N, 101°45'E boarded a brand new schooner of 51 tons. The crew had already abandoned ship. She was loaded with coffee and sugar from Singapore. Sank it with gunfire. Ammunition used 5 rounds of 5". 1730 hours - In position 06°44'N, 101°48'E boarded the 50 tons junk Kian Huat. The cargo was sugar from Singapore to Champon. Sank it with gunfire. Ammunition used 6 rounds of 5". 1830 hours - In position 06°41'N, 101°51'E boarded the schooner Joo Lee Maru, 120 tons. Cargo was sugar and missellaneous stores from Singapore to Kuanan. Sank it with gunfire. Ammunition used 7 rounds of 5". 2045 hours - Returned to the coaster left around 1650 hours and sank him with gunfire. Ammunition used 2 rounds of 5" and 2 rounds of 40mm.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sceptre: HMS Sceptre (Lt. R.F. Park, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Scythian: HMS Scythian (T/A/Lt.Cdr. C.P. Thode, RNZNVR) arrived at Trincomalee.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stubborn: HMS Stubborn (Lt. A.G. Davies, RN) torpedoed and sank the Japanese patrol vessel Patrol Boat No.2 (1350 tons, former destroyer Nadakaze, built 1920, offsite link) in the Java Sea in position 07°07'S, 115°40'E. One survivor was shot in the water after he made 'suspicious gesture'. Lt. Davies now ordered all the survivors to be shot and a machine gun was brought up. However before the order could be carried out an arcraft appeared on the scene forcing Stubborn to dive. When she returned to the scene later no Japanese survivors were found. (All times are zone -9) 1750 hours - Heard HE bearing 300°. 1800 hours - Started attack on what was thought to be a Minekaze-class destroyer. 1823 hours - Fired 4 torpedoes from 3000 yards. 2 Hits were obtained and the enemy was seen to sink quickly. 1829 hours - Surfaced and closed the wreckage. About 60 survivors were seen in the water but none could be persuaded to come aboard. 1903 hours - Dived to 60 feet for an unidentified aircraft. 2005 hours - Surfaced to try to pick up an officer survivor but no survivors or wreckage could be seen anymore. [The patrol report does not mention anything on firing on survivors in the water].

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Supreme: HMS Supreme (Lt.Cdr. T.E. Barlow, RN) ended her 6th war patrol (5th in the Far East and 2nd in the South-West Pacific area) at Subic Bay.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Saga: HMS Saga (T/Lt. P.S. Thirsk, DSC, RNR) departed Scapa Flow for Holy Loch.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Truant: HMS Truant (Lt.Cdr. R.S. Brookes, DSO, DSC, RN) arrived at Rothesay.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tuna: HMS Tuna (Lt.Cdr. R.L. Alexander, DSO, DSC, RN) transited the Kiel Canal and arrived at Brunsbüttel.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Thrasher: HMS Thrasher (Lt.Cdr. M.F.R. Ainslie, DSO, DSC, RN) sank a Japanese sailing vessel with gunfire in the Lankawi area (northern entrance to the Straits of Malacca). (all times are zone -6,5) 0910 hours - While operating in the Langkawi area, surfaced and sank by gunfire a two masted 20 ton junk fully laden with rice. The crew was taken on board. Two rounds were expended from as close as 200 yards.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trespasser: HMS Trespasser (T/Lt. M.D. Tattersall, DSC, RNVR) conducted exercises off Blyth.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Thorough: HMS Thorough (Lt. A.G. Chandler, RNR) departed from Fremantle for her 8th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Java Sea together with HMS Taciturn. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Thorough during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trenchant: HMS Trenchant (Cdr. A.R. Hezlet, DSO and Bar, DSC, RN) ended her 7th war patrol at Fremantle.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Taciturn: HMS Taciturn (Lt.Cdr. E.T. Stanley, DSO, DSC, RN) departed from Fremantle for her 3rd war patrol (2nd in the Far East). She was ordered to patrol in the Java Sea. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Taciturn during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Talent (iii): HMS Talent (Lt.Cdr. R.M. Favell, DSC, RN) departed from Barrow for Holy Loch.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Untiring: At 1030 hours HMS Untiring (Lt. G.E.L.F. Edsell, RN) was decommissioned by the Royal Navy and turned over the the Royal Hellenic Navy being renamed Xifias (Swordfish in English).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Upshot: HMS Upshot (Lt. A.J. Boyall, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Plymouth with HMS Gweal (T/Lt. H. Hilton, RNVR), HMS Thirlmere (T/Lt. H.O. Olsen, RNR), HMS Amber (T/Lt. C.A. Lines, RNVR) and another vessel [unable to read the name in the log of HMS Upshot].

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vox: HMS Vox (Lt. W.E.I. Littlejohn, DSC, RANVR) conducted A/S exercises off Auckland with HMNZS HDML 1183 (T/Lt. I.H. Curd, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1184 (T/Lt. J. Gifford, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1185 (T/Lt. G.R. Curtis, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1186 (T/Lt. A.R. Joughin, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1187 (Lt. W.R.G. Reid, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1188 (T/A/Lt. A.N. Burt, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1189 (T/Lt. G.A.B. Walker, RNZNVR), HMNZS HDML 1190 (T/Lt. D.F. Davis, RNZNVR) and HMS HDML 1349 (T/Lt. A.J. Gillon, RNZNVR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Astute: HMS Astute (A/Lt.Cdr. R. Gatehouse, DSC, RN) conducted torpedo discharge trials at the torpedo firing range at Arrochar.

US Navy Submarine USS R-1: USS R-1 (Lt.Cdr. J.H. Cunningham, Jr., USNR) participated in exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-13: USS R-13 (Lt. D.C. Bowman, USNR) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-18: USS R-18 conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-20: USS R-20 (Lt. R.G. Black, USNR) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS Sea Leopard: USS Sea Leopard (Cdr. R.E.M. Ward, USN) shifted from the Portsmouth Navy Yard to Newport, Rhode Island to conduct torpedo trials.

1946

US Navy Submarine USS Skipjack: Sunk during Test Baker, the second of two atomic bombs exploded at Bikini during Operation Crossroads.

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