Allied Warships

HMS Ceylon (30)

Light cruiser of the Fiji class


HMS Ceylon as completed in 1943.

NavyThe Royal Navy
TypeLight cruiser
ClassFiji 
Pennant30 
Built byA. Stephen & Sons Ltd. (Glasgow, Scotland) 
Ordered1 Mar 1939 
Laid down27 Apr 1939 
Launched30 Jul 1942 
Commissioned13 Jul 1943 
End service 
History

HMS Ceylon was sold to the Peruvian Navy on 9 February 1960.
She was renamed, Colonel Bolognesi.
Colonel Bolognesi was discarded in May 1982.
Scrapped in Taiwan in August 1985.

 

Commands listed for HMS Ceylon (30)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Capt. Guy Beresford Amery-Parkes, RN28 Apr 194312 May 1945
2Capt. Kenneth Lanyon Harkness, DSC, RN12 May 194513 Nov 1945

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Notable events involving Ceylon include:


The page of HMS Ceylon was last updated in September 2021.

5 Jul 1943
Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed her builders yard and proceeded to Greenock. (1)

7 Jul 1943
Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted trials in the Clyde area. (1)

10 Jul 1943
Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted trials in the Clyde area. (1)

12 Jul 1943
Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted trials in the Clyde area. These included full power trials. The ships is accepted from the builders yard the next day. (1)

17 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises in the Clyde area. (1)

18 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) shifted from Greenock to Glasgow. (1)

19 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) shifted from Glasgow to Greenock. (1)

20 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises in the Clyde area. (1)

21 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises at / off Lamlash with HMS Cardiff (A/Capt. A.G. Davidson, RN). (1)

23 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted A/S exercises in the Clyde area with HMS Stoic (Lt. P.B. Marriott, DSO, RN). (1)

27 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises in the Clyde area. (1)

29 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises in the Clyde area. (1)

30 Jul 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises in the Clyde area. (1)

2 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed the Clyde for Scapa Flow. (2)

3 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow to commence a work-up programme. (2)

5 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery and torpedo firing exercises at Scapa Flow. (2)

5 Aug 1943
HMS Stubborn (Lt. A.A. Duff, RN) conducted attack exercises off Scapa Flow during which HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) served as target. (3)

7 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. (2)

10 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. These were followed by tactical exercises off Scapa Flow with HMS Phoebe (Capt. C.P. Frend, RN). (2)

12 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. (2)

13 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (2)

17 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Phoebe (Capt. C.P. Frend, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. (2)

18 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery and torpedo firing exercises at Scapa Flow. (1)

19 Aug 1943
During 19/20 August 1943, HMS London (Capt. R.V. Symonds-Tayler, DSC, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMS Spartan (Capt. P.V. McLaughlin, RN) and HMS Danae (Capt. J.R.S. Haines, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. These included night exercises. (2)

23 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Phoebe (Capt. C.P. Frend, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. (2)

25 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. These were followed by underway refueling exercises with HMS Rocket (Lt.Cdr. H.B. Acworth, OBE, RN). (2)

26 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises off Scapa Flow.

These were followed in the evening by exercises with HMS Phoebe (Capt. C.P. Frend, RN). (2)

27 Aug 1943
HMS Malaya (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), HMS London (Capt. R.V. Symonds-Tayler, DSC, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMCS Huron (Lt.Cdr. H.S. Rayner, DSC, RCN), HMCS Iroquois (Cdr. J.C. Hibbard DSC, RCN) and HMS Obedient (Lt.Cdr. H. Unwin, DSC and Bar, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. (2)

31 Aug 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted towing exercises with HMS Malaya (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN).

Later exercises were carried out with HMS Spartan (Capt. P.V. McLaughlin, RN). These included night exercises during the night of 31 August / 1 September. (4)

2 Sep 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Janus (Lt.Cdr. W.B.R. Morrison, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. (1)

4 Sep 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Scapa Flow for Plymouth. (1)

6 Sep 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Plymouth where she is to undergo some modifiactions before she is to proceed to the Far East to join the Eastern Fleet. (1)

19 Sep 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is docked at the Devonport Dockyard. (5)

22 Oct 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is undocked. (6)

28 Oct 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery exercises off Plymouth. (6)

29 Oct 1943
HMS Glasgow (Capt. E.M. Evans-Lombe, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) both conducted gunnery exercises off Plymouth. These were followed by tactical exercises off Eddystone upon completion of which they returned to Plymouth. (7)

30 Oct 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Plymouth for patrol off the Bay of Biscay to intercept enemy blockade breakers. The patrol was to end at Gibraltar. (6)

6 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Gibraltar from patrol. (8)

7 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Gibraltar for an anti blockade breaker patrol off the Bay of Biscay. (8)

14 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) returned to Gibraltar from patrol. (8)

15 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Gibraltar for Port Said. (8)

19 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Port Said. (8)

20 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Port Said for Aden. (8)

23 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Aden. (8)

24 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Aden for Bombay. (8)

27 Nov 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Bombay. (8)

6 Dec 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted D/G trials off Bombay and then departed for Trincomalee. (9)

9 Dec 1943
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (9)

17 Dec 1943
HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Trincomalee for exercises. (9)

19 Dec 1943
HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) both returned to Trincomalee after the completion of the exercises.

HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN) had proceeded to Colombo and also arrived there on this day. (9)

22 Dec 1943
HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN) departed Colombo and HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Trincomalee for exercises.

Around 0100/23 the ships joined company and the exercises began. (9)

24 Dec 1943
HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee upon completion of the exercises. (9)

29 Dec 1943
HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Trincomalee for exercises. (10)

31 Dec 1943
Upon completion of the exercises, HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN) and HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN) returned to Trincomalee while HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) proceeded to Colombo arriving there on the same day. (10)

5 Jan 1944
HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Sussex (A/Capt. M. Everard, RN) departed Trincomalee or Colombo for several days of exercises. (11)

7 Jan 1944
HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Sussex (A/Capt. M. Everard, RN) arrived at Trincomalee after exercises. (11)

12 Jan 1944
HMS Suffolk (Capt. A.S. Russell, DSO, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Emerald (Capt. F.J. Wylie, RN) departed Trincomalee for exercises.

HMS Suffolk parted company with HMS Ceylon and HMS Emerald later the same day. (12)

14 Jan 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Emerald (Capt. F.J. Wylie, RN) returned to Trincomalee on completion of the exercises. (13)

18 Jan 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee upon completion of which she set course for Colombo. (14)

19 Jan 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Colombo. (14)

23 Jan 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Colombo for Addu Atoll. (14)

24 Jan 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Addu Atoll. (14)

25 Jan 1944
At 0830 hours, HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), departed Addu Atoll to make rendezvous with the US transport Mariposa (18017 GRT, built 1931). Rendezvous was effected around 1500 hours and HMS Ceylon took over the escort from HMS Redoubt (Lt.Cdr. N.E.G. Ropner, DSO, RN) which then proceeded to Addu Atoll. (14)

1 Feb 1944
Around 0840 hours, HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), turned over the escort of the US transport Mariposa (18017 GRT, built 1931) to HMAS Adelaide (A/Capt. J.C.D. Esdaile, OBE, RAN).

HMS Ceylon arrived at Fremantle later the same day. (15)

13 Feb 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Shah (A/Capt. W.J. Yendell, RN) departed Fremantle for Trincomalee and Cochin respectively. HMS Celyon was to escort HMS Shah until the equator. (15)

21 Feb 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Shah (A/Capt. W.J. Yendell, RN) made rendezvous with HMAS Norman (Cdr. H.J. Buchanan DSO, RAN) and HMS Pathfinder (Lt.Cdr. T.F. Hallifax, RN) which then took over the escort of HMS Shah. HMS Ceylon then set course for Trincomalee. (15)

23 Feb 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (15)

1 Mar 1944
HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. H.G. Norman, CBE, RN), HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN and flagship of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN and second in command of the Eastern Fleet), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMAS Napier (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Green, DSC, RAN) HMAS Norman (Cdr. H.J. Buchanan DSO, RAN) and HMS Pathfinder (Lt.Cdr. T.F. Hallifax, RN) proceeded to sea for exercises. During the exercises a periscope was reported and the exercise was cancelled. (16)

8 Mar 1944

Operation Initial.

Sweep into the Bay of Bengal to show force in that area and also to provide training for the Fleet.

The battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN and flagship of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN and second in command of the Eastern Fleet), battleship HMS Valiant (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMS Emerald (Capt. F.J. Wylie, RN), and the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. F.S.W. de Winton, RN), HMS Relentless (Lt.Cdr. R.A. Fell, RN), HMAS Norman (Cdr. H.J. Buchanan DSO, RAN), HMAS Napier (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Green, DSC, RAN), HMAS Nepal (Cdr. F.B. Morris, RAN) departed Trincomalee.

They were later followed by the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (Capt. R.L.B. Cunliffe, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN) and the destroyers HMAS Nizam (Cdr. C.H. Brooks, RAN), HMAS Quickmatch (Lt.Cdr. R. Rhoades, DSC, RAN) and HMS Quality (Lt.Cdr. G.L. Farnfield, DSO, RN).

In the afternoon, a full programme of practices was carried out, including 15" and 6" full calibre firings at battle practice targets and also AA firing practices for all types of close range weapons.

HMS Illustrious flew off No.847 Squadron (9 Barracudas) to China Bay aerodrome and embarked No.1830 Fighter Squadron, making her complement No.810, 1830 and 1833 Squadrons, a total of 12 Barracudas and 27 Corsairs. At 1630/8 the fleet was formed as a unit, W/T silence enforced and course set for the northward.

Early on 11 March, during night exercises a serious accident on the flight deck of HMS Illustrious occured. A Corsair fighter crashed into the port barrier stanchion and almost immediately burst into flames. There was a serious petrol fire in which two officers and two ratings were killed and several others badly burned. The fire took an hour to extinguish and wrecked Port no.2 pom pom mount.

Five aircraft that were in the air at the time were ordered to land at Madras. HMAS Quickmatch picked up a badly burned officer from the sea and was sent to Madras with him.

During the day (11th), W/T silence was broken, in accordance with the Commander in Chief’s orders, in the hope that the transmissions might be picked up by the enemy, thus indicating that our units were operating in the Bay of Bengal.

In the evening (11th), HMS Ceylon was detached to the Palk Straits to carry out oiling trials by the double trough method with the RFA tanker Arndale. These trials were unsuccessful.

The Fleet returned to Trincomalee on March 12th. (16)

19 Mar 1944

Operation Diplomat

On 19 March the light cruiser HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) departed Trincomalee to escort the Royal Fleet Auxiliary tankers Arndale (8296 GRT, built 1937), Eaglesdale (8032 GRT, built 1942) and Easedale (8032 GRT, built 1942).

These tankers were to refuel the ships from the Eastern Fleet that were to participate in operation Diplomat. During operation Diplomat the Eastern Fleet proceeded to the south-west of Cocos Island where the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga (Capt. J.H. Cassady, USN) and the destroyers USS Cummings (Cdr. P.D. Williams, USN), USS Dunlap (Cdr. C. Iverson, USN) and USS Fanning (Cdr. R.M. MacKinnon, USN).

Ships from the Eastern Fleet departed Trincomalee on 21 March, these were the battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. H.G. Norman, CBE, RN), HMS Valiant (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN and second in command of the Eastern Fleet), aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (Capt. R.L.B. Cunliffe, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), heavy cruisers HMS London (Capt. R.V. Symonds-Tayler, DSC, RN), HMS Cumberland (Capt. F.J. Butler, RN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN), destroyers HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quality (Lt.Cdr. G.L. Farnfield, DSO, RN), HMS Queenborough (Cdr. E.P. Hinton, DSO and Bar, MVO, RN), HMAS Quiberon (Cdr. G.S. Stewart, RAN), HMS Pathfinder (Lt.Cdr. T.F. Hallifax, RN), HMAS Napier (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Green, DSC, RAN), HMAS Nepal (Cdr. F.B. Morris, RAN), HMAS Norman (Cdr. H.J. Buchanan DSO, RAN), HrMs Van Galen (Lt.Cdr. F.T. Burghard, RNN) and HrMs Tjerk Hiddes (Lt.Cdr. G.A. Cox, RNN).

On 24 March 1944, the Eastern Fleet met HrMs Tromp and the tankers at 0930 hours in position 07°57'S, 82°14'E and during the next three days they experienced good weather. Ships were fuelled as follows;

24 March 1944
Easedale - HMS Renown
Arndale - HMS Valiant and HMS Ceylon
Eaglesdale - HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMNZS Gambia

25 March 1944
Easedale - HMS Quilliam, HMS Queenborough, HMAS Quiberon, HMS Quality and HMS Pathfinder
Arndale - HMS Illustrious and HrMs Tromp
Eaglesdale - HMS London, HMS Cumberland, HMAS Napier, HMAS Nepal and HMAS Norman

26 March 1944
Easedale - HMS Pathfinder, HrMs Van Galen, HMS Quiberon and HMAS Norman
Eaglesdale - HMAS Napier, HMS Quilliam, HMS Queensborough, HMS Quality and HMAS Nepal

Tanker Arndale had been detached after fuelling on the 25th escorted by HrMS Tjerk Hiddes which was suffering from defects. The other two oilers were detached after fuelling on the 26th still escorted by HrMs Tromp.

HrMs Ceylon and HMS Napier arrived at Colombo on 31 March. All the other ships arrived at Trincomalee on the same day except HrMs Tromp which arrived at Trincomalee with the tankers on 2 April. (17)

10 Apr 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is docked at Colombo. (18)

14 Apr 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is undocked. (18)

15 Apr 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Colombo for Trincomalee. She arrived there the following day. (18)

16 Apr 1944

Operation Cockpit

Carrier raid against Sabang by the Eastern Fleet.

On 16 April 1944 the Eastern Fleet put to sea from Trincomalee, Ceylon in two task forces;
Task Force 69, which was made up of the battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. H.G. Norman, CBE, RN and flagship of Admiral Somerville, CinC Eastern Fleet), HMS Valiant (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), Richelieu (Capt. Lambert), the light cruisers HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Nigeria (Capt. S.H. Paton, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN), HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) and the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. F.S.W. de Winton, RN), HMS Racehorse (Cdr. J.J. Casement, DSC, RN), HMS Penn (Lt. M.J.W. Pawsey, RN), HMS Petard (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Egan, DSO, RN), HMAS Quiberon (Cdr. G.S. Stewart, RAN), HMAS Napier (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Green, DSC, RAN), HMAS Nepal (Lt.Cdr. J. Plunkett-Cole, RAN), HMAS Nizam (Cdr. C.H. Brooks, RAN) HrMs Van Galen (Lt.Cdr. F.T. Burghard, RNN).

Task Force 70, which was made up of the battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN and flagship of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN, second in command of the Eastern Fleet), the British aircraft carriers HMS Illustrious (Capt. R.L.B. Cunliffe, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), USS Saratoga (Capt. J.H. Cassady, USN), heavy cruiser HMS London (Capt. R.V. Symonds-Tayler, DSC, RN) and the destroyers HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quadrant (Lt.Cdr. W.H. Farrington, RN), HMS Queenborough (Cdr. E.P. Hinton, DSO and Bar, MVO, RN), USS Cummings (Cdr. P.D. Williams, USN), USS Dunlap (Cdr. C. Iverson, USN) and USS Fanning (Lt.Cdr. J.C. Bentley, USN).

During the forenoon of the 17th the four 'N' class and two 'P' class destroyers of Force 69 were fuelled by HMS Newcastle, HMS Nigeria, HMS Ceylon, HMNZS Gambia. The three 'Q' class destroyers from Force 70 were fuelled by HMS Renown and HMS London.

On the 18th HMS Ceylon and HMNZS Gambia were transferred from Force 69 to Force 70 to bolster the latters AA defence. (On the 19th HMS Nigeria replaced HMS Ceylon in this force as HMS Ceylon had problems with one shaft and could only make 24 knots.) At sunset Force 70 was detached so as to arrive at the flying off position for the aircraft at 0530/19.

At 0530/19 the carriers launched 46 bombers and 37 fighters (17 Barracudas and 13 Corsairs from HMS Illustrious and 11 Avenges, 18 Dauntless and 24 Hellcats from USS Saratoga) to attack Sabang and nearby airfields. Besides that 12 fighters were launched to patrol overhead of both Task forces.

The enemy was taken completely by surprise and 24 Japanese aircraft were destroyed on the ground. Only 1 fighter, a Hellcat from the Saratoga, was lost on the Allied side and it's pilot was rescued out of the water by the British submarine HMS Tactician (Lt.Cdr. A.F. Collett, DSC, RN). All aircraft, except the one lost, had returned to the carriers by 0930 hours after which both task forces retired to the west. The Japanese tried to attack the Allied task force with three torpedo bombers but these were shot down by Allied fighter aircraft at 1010 hours.

At Sabang the Japanese merchants Kunitsu Maru (2722 GRT, built 1937) and Haruno Maru (775 GRT, built 1927, former Dutch Kidoel) were sunk by the Allied aircraft while the Japanese minelayer Hatsutaka was damaged.

At 0800 hours on the 20th the fleet set course to return to Trincomalee. The cruisers and destroyer meanwhile carried out attack exercises.

The fleet returned to Trincomalee on 21 April. (19)

28 Apr 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted gunnery (close range AA) and underway refueling exercises (with the RFA oiler Arndale off Trincomalee. Also a 6" bombardment exercise was carried out.

During the night of 28/29 April a night encounter exercise was carried out with the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. F.S.W. de Winton, RN), HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quadrant (Lt.Cdr. W.H. Farrington, RN) and HMAS Napier (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Green, DSC, RAN). (18)

3 May 1944
During 3/4 May 1944, HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) participated in exercises off Trincomalee.

[Richelieu (Capt. Merveilleux du Vignaux) also appears to have participated in these exercises.] (20)

6 May 1944

Operation Transom.

Carrier raid against Surabaya by the Eastern Fleet.

On 6 May 1944 the Eastern Fleet put to sea from Trincomalee, Ceylon in two task forces;
Task Force 65, which was made up of the battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. H.G. Norman, CBE, RN and flagship of Admiral Somerville, CinC Eastern Fleet), HMS Valiant (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), Richelieu (Capt. Merveilleux du Vignaux), the light cruisers HMS Newcastle (Capt. P.B.R.W. William-Powlett, DSO, RN), HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN), HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) and the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. F.S.W. de Winton, RN), HMS Racehorse (Cdr. J.J. Casement, DSC, RN), HMS Penn (Lt. M.J.W. Pawsey, RN), HMAS Napier (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Green, DSC, RAN), HMAS Nepal (Lt.Cdr. J. Plunkett-Cole, RAN), HMAS Quiberon (Cdr. G.S. Stewart, RAN), HMAS Quickmatch (Lt.Cdr. O.H. Becher, DSC, RAN) HrMs Van Galen (Lt.Cdr. F.T. Burghard, RNN).

Task Force 66, which was made up of the battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN and flagship of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN, second in command of the Eastern Fleet) (went to Task Force 65 the next day), the aircraft carriers HMS Illustrious (Capt. R.L.B. Cunliffe, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), USS Saratoga (Capt. J.H. Cassady, USN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN) and the destroyers HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quadrant (Lt.Cdr. W.H. Farrington, RN), HMS Queenborough (Cdr. E.P. Hinton, DSO and Bar, MVO, RN) USS Cummings (Cdr. P.D. Williams, USN), USS Dunlap (Cdr. C. Iverson, USN) and USS Fanning (Lt.Cdr. J.C. Bentley, USN).

On 10 May 1944, the Dutch light cruiser Tromp and the destroyers were fuelled at sea by the capital ships and the cruisers. During fuelling from HMS Valiant the Dutch destroyer HrMs Van Galen sustained some minor damage (fractured hull plate on her port side) but the crew of the Van Galen was able to effect emergency repairs.

On 15 May 1944, task forces 65 and 66 were fuelled at Exmouth Gulf, Australia by Task Force 67 which was made up of of six Royal Fleet Auxiliary tankers; Eaglesdale (8032 GRT, built 1942), Echodale (8150 GRT, built 1941), Easedale (8032 GRT, built 1942), Arndale (8296 GRT, built 1937), Pearleaf (5911 GRT, built 1917), Appleleaf (5891 GRT, built 1917) and supplyship (used as distilling ship) Bacchus (3154 GRT, built 1936). This force had already left Trincomalee on 30 April and was escorted by the heavy cruisers HMS London (Capt. R.V. Symonds-Tayler, DSC, RN), HMS Suffolk (Capt. A.S. Russell, DSO, RN). They had also been escorted near Ceylon by a local escort for A/S purposes, this local escort had been made up of the destroyers HMS Rotherham, HrMs Van Galen and the frigate HMS Findhorn (Lt.Cdr. J.C. Dawson, RD, RNR). The local escort returned to Ceylon on 5 May 1944. The two cruisers mentioned above now joined Task Force 66. Later this day Task Forces 65 and 66 went to sea again for the actual attack on Surabaya. On leaving Exmouth Gulf the fleet was spotted by the merhant vessel Aroona. This ship was now instructed to put into Exmouth Gulf and was held there by HMAS Adelaide (A/Capt. J.C.D. Esdale, OBE, RAN) for 24 hours and to impress on the master and crew of this vessel the necessity of not disclosing any information concerning the Fleet on the arrival of their ship at Fremantle (their next port of call).

In the early morning hours of the 17th the carriers launched 45 dive bombers and 40 fighters for an attack on the harbour and oil installations (Wonokromo oil refeniry) of Surabaya, Netherlands East Indies. (USS Saratoga: 12 Avengers (1 had to return with engine trouble shortly after being launched), 18 Dauntless, 24 Hellcats; HMS Illustrious: 18 Avengers (2 of which force landed in the sea shortly after being launched), 16 Corsairs). On the ground they destroyed 12 enemy aircraft (20 were claimed). The damage to the harbour and shipping were over estimated (10 ships were thought to have been hit) as in fact only the small transport ship Shinrei Maru (987 GRT, built 1918) was sunk and patrol vessel P 36, auxiliary submarine chasers CHa-107 and CHa-108, tanker Yosei Maru (2594 GRT, built 1928, former Dutch Josefina) and cargo ships Choka Maru (???? GRT, built ????) and Tencho Maru (2716 GRT, built 1919) were damaged.

On the 18th the US ships were released. The other ships then proceeded to Exmouth Gulf where they arrived to fuel the next day before starting on the return trip to Ceylon less destroyer HMAS Quiberon which was to refit in Australia and was sent to Fremantle.

On 23 May 1944, the Dutch light cruiser Tromp and the destroyers were fuelled at sea by the capital ships and the cruisers.

Task Force 65 and 66 arrived back at Trincomalee on the 27th.

During this operation several US Submarine guarded the passages to the Indian Ocean to spot a possible Japanese counter attack. The submarines deployed for this purpose were the following; In the Sunda Strait from 12 to 23 May 1944; USS Angler (Cdr. R. I. Olsen, USN) and USS Gunnel (Cdr. J.S. McCain, Jr., USN).
South of Lombok Strait from 13 to 20 May 1944; USS Cabrilla (Cdr. W.C. Thompson, Jr., USN) and also the USS Bluefish (Cdr. C.M. Henderson, USN) from 13 May until the night of the 16th.
South of Bali Strait from 17 to 20 May; USS Bluefish.
North of Bali Strait; USS Puffer (Cdr. F.G. Selby, USN) during the night of 16/17 May.

The following US Submarines were deployed in the Surabaya area for air/sea rescue duties; USS Puffer in the Madura Strait about 40 miles to the east of Surabaya.
USS Rasher (Cdr. W.R. Laughton, USN) in the Java Sea about 40 miles to the north of Surabaya. (21)

10 Jun 1944

Operation Councillor.

Simulated raid towards the Sabang area to give the enemy the impression that an air attack on Sabang was to take place in the morning of June 12th.

This operation took place at the same time as US operations in the Marianas.

On 10 June 'Force 68' departed Trincomalee. For this occasion 'Force 68' was made up of the following warships: aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (Capt. C.E. Lambe, CB, CVO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), escort carrier HMS Atheling (Capt. R.I. Agnew, OBE, RCN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN), HMS Phoebe (Capt. C.P. Frend, RN) and the destroyers HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quality (Lt.Cdr. the Viscount Jocelyn, RN), HMS Racehorse (Cdr. J.J. Casement, DSC, RN), HMS Rapid (Lt.Cdr. M.W. Tomkinson, DSC and Bar, RN) and HMS Relentless (Lt.Cdr. R.A. Fell, RN).

In order not to have to approach the coast to much the submarine Surf transmitted a signal by W/T in the evening of June 11th to simulate that the force was closing Sabang.

Flying practices were carried out throughout. On 11 June two aircraft from HMS Illustrious were lost due to accidents.

The whole force returned to Trincomalee in the afternoon of 13 June. (16)

19 Jun 1944

Operation Pedal.

Air strikes against Port Blair in the Andaman Islands.

On 19 June 1944, ' Force 60 ' deaparted Trincomalee. It was made up of the following warships: battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN, second in command of the Eastern Fleet), battleship Richelieu (Capt. Merveilleux du Vignaux), aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (Capt. C.E. Lambe, CB, CVO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), light cruisers HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and the destroyers HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quality (Lt.Cdr. the Viscount Jocelyn, RN), HMAS Quickmatch (Lt.Cdr. O.H. Becher, DSC, RAN), HMS Rotherham (Capt. F.S.W. de Winton, RN), HMS Racehorse (Cdr. J.J. Casement, DSC, RN), HMS Raider (Lt.Cdr. K.W. Michell, DSC, RN), HMS Relentless (Lt.Cdr. R.A. Fell, RN) and HMS Roebuck (Cdr. J.T. Lean, DSO, RN).

The submarines HMS Clyde (Lt.Cdr. R.S. Brookes, DSO, DSC, RN) and HMS Tantivy (Cdr. M.G. Rimington, DSO and Bar, RN) were deployed on air/sea rescue duties.

At dawn on 21 June, ' Force 60 ' was in the flying off position, about 95 miles to the west of Port Blair.

At 0530/21, an air striking force of 15 Barracudas escorted by 16 Corsairs was flown off followed by a separate fighter striking force of 8 Corsairs.

They were to attack the following targets near Port Blair;
Parked aircraft on the two enemy airfields were to be attacked by the fighter striking force.
Shipping in the harbour was to be attacked by the air striking force. Also targets on Ross Island, the Chatham Island saw mills, the seaplane base at Phoenix Bay and military installations in Aberdeen harbour.

Two Barracudas returned to HMS Illustrious with engine trouble before they could attack their targets.

Surprise appears to have been almost complete. Weather was poor though.

The total bomb load taken over the target area was 26 500lb bombs and 26 250lb bombs. 3 Bombs failed to release. Another 3 were released set at safe. 4 were jettisoned in the sea. The remaining 42 fell in the target area, of which 17 were seen to hit the selected targets.

The following results were reported:
2 - 500lb and 1 - 250lb bombs on the barracks and 1 - 500lb bomb on the power house on Ross Island.

2 - 250lb and 3 - 500lb bombs in the saw mills at Chatham Island.

1 - 500lb bomb on workshops and 4 more bombs in close proximity of the sea-plane base in Phoenix Bay.

2 - 500lb bombs on the barracks and 1 - 250lb bomb on the motor transport yard in the Aberdeen harbour area.

2 single engined enemy aircraft were set on fire at Port Blair main airfield. No enemy aircraft were see on the secondary landing strip.

Mount August radar station was completely destroyed and Mount Harriet radar station and tower were damaged by Corsairs.

4 aircraft had been hit by AA fire but were able to return to HMS Illustrious.

1 Barracuda was lost over the target area, the crew must be considered lost. 1 Corsair crahed into the sea on return. The pilot was picked up after having bailed out just in time.

A total of 57 aircraft had been embarked in HMS Illustrious for this operation. At one time 51 aircraft were in the air at the same time.

After landing on the aircraft, ' Force 60 ' withdrew to the westward at high speed during 21 June. No enemy aircraft approached the force throughout this operation.

' Force 60 ' returned to Trincomalee in the morning of 23 June 1944. (16)

29 Jun 1944
HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Trincomalee for exercises. They were joined at sea by their sister ship HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN) which had departed Colombo on 28 June. (22)

30 Jun 1944
HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee early in the evening upon completion of their exercises. (22)

3 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted a bombardment exercise off Trincomalee upon completion of which she set course for Madras. (23)

4 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Madras. (23)

9 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Madras for Trincomalee. (23)

9 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (23)

13 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. (23)

19 Jul 1944
HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN) and HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) all conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (24)

22 Jul 1944

Operation Crimson.

Carrier raid and surface bombardment against Sabang, Netherlands East Indies by the Eastern Fleet.

On 22 July 1944 the Eastern Fleet put to sea from Trincomalee, Ceylon. The ships that participated in this sortie were the battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. H.G. Norman, CBE, RN and flagship of Admiral Somerville, CinC Eastern Fleet), HMS Valiant (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), Richelieu (Capt. Merveilleux du Vignaux), battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN, second in command of the Eastern Fleet), aircraft carriers HMS Illustrious (Capt. C.E. Lambe, CB, CVO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), HMS Victorious (Capt. M.M. Denny, CB, CBE, RN), heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland (Capt. P.K. Enright, RN), light cruisers HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMS Phoebe (Capt. S.M. Raw, CBE, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN), HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) and the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. F.S.W. de Winton, RN), HMS Relentless (Lt.Cdr. R.A. Fell, RN), HMS Racehorse (Cdr. J.J. Casement, DSC, RN), HMS Rocket (Lt.Cdr. H.B. Acworth, OBE, RN), HMS Raider (Lt.Cdr. K.W. Michell, DSC, RN), HMS Roebuck (Cdr. J.T. Lean, DSO, RN), HMS Rapid (Lt.Cdr. M.W. Tomkinson, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Quality (Lt.Cdr. the Viscount Jocelyn, RN) HMAS Quickmatch (Lt.Cdr. O.H. Becher, DSC, RAN).

The British submarines HMS Templar (Lt. T.G. Ridgeway, RN) and HMS Tantalus (Lt.Cdr. H.S. Mackenzie, DSO and Bar, RN) were deployed for air/sea rescue duties.

In the early hours of the 25th the carriers, HMS Illustrious and HMS Victorious, separated from the fleet under the escort of HMS Phoebe, HMS Roebuck and HMS Raider, and launched a total of 34 fighter aircraft to attack airfields in the area (18 Corsairs from HMS Illustrious and 16 Corsairs from HMS Victorious). One Corsair fighter was damaged by AA fire from the enemy and crashed into the sea, the pilot was picked up by HMS Nigeria. Five other Corsairs were damaged by AA fire but managed to return to the carriers. Two of these could be repaired on board, the other three were too badly damaged for effective repairs.

The battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth, HMS Valiant, Richelieu, battlecruiser HMS Renown, heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland, light cruisers HMS Nigeria, HMS Kenya, HMS Ceylon, HMNZS Gambia and the destroyers HMS Rotherham, HMS Relentless, HMS Racehorse, HMS Rocket and HMS Rapid then commenced a bombardment of the Sabang area. They fired a total of 294 - 15", 134 - 8", 324 - 6", ca. 500 - 4.7" and 123 - 4" shells.

Then the Dutch cruiser HrMs Tromp entered Sabang Bay, her rightful waters, with the destroyers HMS Quilliam, HMS Quality and HMAS Quickmatch. In all these four ships fired a total of 8 Torpedos and 208 - 6", 717 - 4.'7" and 668 x 4" shells. Japanese shore batteries obtained 4 hits on the Tromp while Quilliam and Quality were both hit once. The hit by what was thought to be a 3” shell on Quilliam caused minor structural damage but killed one petty officer and wounded four ratings. Quality was hit by what is thought to be a 5” shell which hit the tripod foremast and HA director. One war correspondent was killed and one officer and eight retings were wounded, some of them seriously. Tromp was hit by two 5” and two 3” shells but was lucky that none of these exploded !!!, she suffered only minor structural damage and no deaths or even wounded amongst her crew !

Later that day 13 fighters from the carriers intercepted a Japanese counter attack with 10 aircraft. 7 of these were shot down for no losses of their own.

The fleet arrived back at Trincomalee on 27 July. (25)

28 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Trincomalee for Colombo. (23)

29 Jul 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Colombo. (23)

9 Aug 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Ceylon for a position to the west of northern Sumatra for air/sea rescue duties for operation ' Boomerang ' which was aerial minelaying in the south-west Pacific area. (26)

13 Aug 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee from operations. (26)

17 Aug 1944
During 17/18 August 1944, HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral A.D. Read, CB, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN), conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (27)

19 Aug 1944

Operation Banquet.

Carrier raid against Padang, Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies by ships of the Eastern Fleet.

On 19 July 1944 ships from the Eastern Fleet put to sea from Trincomalee, Ceylon. ' Force 64 ' was made up of the following ships; Aircraft carriers HMS Victorious (Capt. M.M. Denny, CB, CBE, RN), HMS Indomitable (Capt. J.A.S. Eccles, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN), battleship HMS Howe (Capt. H.W.U. McCall, DSO, RN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN) and the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. H.W. Biggs, DSO, RN), HMS Raider (Lt.Cdr. K.W. Michell, DSC, RN), HMS Redoubt (Lt.Cdr. N.E.G. Ropner, DSO, RN), HMS Rapid (Lt.Cdr. M.W. Tomkinson, DSC and Bar, RN) and HMS Rocket (Lt.Cdr. H.B. Acworth, OBE, RN).

On the 17th ' Force 67 ' made up of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary tanker Easedale (8032 GRT, built 1942) escorted by the light cruiser HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) had already gone to sea to be in a position to refuel ships from ' Force 64 ' on the 22th.

The submarine HMS Severn (Lt. R.H. Bull, DSC, RN) was in the area for air/sea rescue duties.

On the 24th the carriers launched aircraft to attack Padang. They claimed to have sunk a transport and to have damaged two more transports.

Three aircraft were lost. One on take off, one during the action and one one landing.

' Force 64 ' returned to Trincomalee on 27 August 1944. (28)

28 Aug 1944
During 28/29 August 1944, the heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland (Capt. P.K. Enright, RN) and the light cruisers HMNZS Gambia (Capt. N.J.W. William-Powlett, DSC, RN) and HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. During the first part of the exercises the light cruisers HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) were also present but they parted company around midnight during the night of 28/29 August to proceed to Colombo and Durban respectively. Later the battlecruiser HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN, second in command of the Eastern Fleet) and the destroyers HMS Quilliam (Capt. R.G. Onslow, DSO and 2 Bars, RN) HMAS Quickmatch (Lt.Cdr. O.H. Becher, DSC, RAN) and HMAS Norman (Cdr. H.J. Buchanan DSO, RAN) also joined. (24)

2 Sep 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) made a short call at Port Louis, Mauritius before departing for Durban later the same day. (29)

6 Sep 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Durban where she was taken in hand for refit. (29)

1 Oct 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is docked at Durban. (30)

18 Oct 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is undocked at Durban. She then continued her refit. (30)

9 Dec 1944
With her refit completed, HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), departed Durban for Trincomalee. (31)

20 Dec 1944
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (31)

28 Dec 1944
During 28/29 December 1944, HMS Suffolk (Capt. D. Gilmour, RN, ) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (32)

1 Jan 1945

Operation Lentil.

Air strikes against oil refineries at Pangkalan-Brandan (North-East Sumatra).

On 1 January 1945 a Force made up of the aircraft carriers HMS Indomitable (Capt. J.A.S. Eccles, RN, flying the flag of Rear Admiral P.L. Vian, KCB, KBE, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Victorious (Capt. M.M. Denny, CB, CBE, RN), HMS Indefatigable (Capt. Q.D. Graham, CBE, DSO, RN), heavy cruiser HMS Suffolk (Capt. D. Gilmour, RN), light cruisers HMS Argonaut (Capt. E.W.L. Longley-Cook, CBE, RN), HMS Black Prince (Capt. D.M. Lees, DSO, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and the destroyers HMS Kempenfelt (Capt. E.G. McGregor, DSO, RN), HMS Wager (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Watkin, RN) HMS Whelp (Cdr. G.A.F. Norfolk, RN), HMS Grenville (Capt. H.P. Henderson, RN), HMCS Undaunted (Lt.Cdr. C.E.R. Sharp, RN), HMS Undine (Cdr. T.C. Robinson, RN), HMS Urania (Lt.Cdr. D.H.P. Gardiner, DSC, RN) and HMS Ursa (Cdr. D.B. Wyburd, DSC, RN) departed Trincomalee for an air strike on oil refineries at Pangkalan-Brandan (North-East Sumatra).

On the morning of 4 January 1945, carrier aircraft were flown off to attack the oil refineries at Pangkalan Brandan and successfully completed the operation. Photographic reconnaissance was also made of port installations at Belawan Deli, Brandan, and Soesoe.

In the afternoon of 6 January 1945, HMS Indifatigable, HMS Sussex, HMS Kempenfelt, HMS Wakeful and HMS Uriana parted company with the remainder of the Force. These ships were to proceed to Colombo.

All ships from the force arrived at Trincomalee / Colombo on 7 January 1945. (33)

16 Jan 1945

Operation Meridian.

Air strikes against oil installations in the Palembang area (South-East Sumatra).

On 16 January 1945 ' Force 63 ' made up of the battleship HMS King George V (Capt. T.E. Halsey, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral H.B. Rawlings, KCB, OBE, RN), aircraft carriers HMS Indomitable (Capt. J.A.S. Eccles, RN, flying the flag of Rear Admiral P.L. Vian, KCB, KBE, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Illustrious (Capt. C.E. Lambe, CB, CVO, RN), HMS Victorious (Capt. M.M. Denny, CB, CBE, RN), HMS Indefatigable (Capt. Q.D. Graham, CBE, DSO, RN), light cruisers HMS Argonaut (Capt. E.W.L. Longley-Cook, CBE, RN), HMS Euryalus (Capt. R. Oliver-Bellesis, RN), HMS Black Prince (Capt. D.M. Lees, DSO, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and the destroyers HMS Grenville (Capt. H.P. Henderson, RN), HMCS Undaunted (Lt.Cdr. C.E.R. Sharp, RN), HMS Undine (Cdr. T.C. Robinson, RN), HMS Ursa (Cdr. D.B. Wyburd, DSC, RN), HMS Kempenfelt (Capt. E.G. McGregor, DSO, RN), HMS Wager (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Watkin, RN), HMS Wakeful (Lt.Cdr. G.D. Pound, DSC, RN), HMS Wessex (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN), HMS Whelp (Cdr. G.A.F. Norfolk, RN) and Whirlwind (Cdr. W.A.F. Hawkins, DSO, DSC, OBE, RN).

HMS Wessex apparently sailed from Trincomalee on the 17th and joined the Force at sea on the 19th.

An oiling force (' Force 69 ') made up of the tankers Echodale (8150 GRT, built 1941), Wave King (8159 GRT, built 1944) and Empire Salvage (10746 GRT, built 1940) had already departed Trincomalee on 13 January. They were escorted by the destroyer HMS Urchin (Lt.Cdr. A.F. Harkness, DSC, OBE, RD, RNR). A fouth tanker, the Arndale (8296 GRT, built 1937) joined ' force 69 ' on 23 January coming from Fremantle.

The submarines HMS Tantalus (Lt.Cdr. H.S. Mackenzie, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Tantivy (Lt. P.S. May, RN) and HMS Sturdy (Lt. W.St.G. Anderson, DSC, RNR) were positioned for air/sea rescue duties. (Tantalus east of Sumatra, Tantivy west of Sumatra and Sturdy in the Sunda Strait area.)

On 20 January ships from ' Force 63 ' were refuelled by ' Force 69 '. Due to the weather conditions this was done only with difficulty and some of the refuelling gear of the tankers was damaged. HMS Ceylon was now assigned to ' Force 69 ' to give protection to this Force. [Note: Arndale at this moment was not yet with ' Force 69 '.]

' Force 63 ' then proceeded on the first phase of the operation, to launch air strikes on the oil installations at Pladjoe (north of Palembang) which were to be flown off on 21 January but the weather prevented this. It was only at 24 January that the weather had cleared to enable flying operations. 43 Avengers, 12 Firefly's (equipped with rockets) and 50 Hellcat, Corsair and Seafire fighters were flown off. The enemy installations were damaged but at the cost of no less then 32 aircraft due to enemy action (7) or crash landings (25). 14 enemy fighters were reported shot down in the air and 38 aircraft were reported to have been destroyed on the gound.

' Force 63 ' then retired from the area to rendezvous with ' Force 69 ' and refuel. This was done on 26 / 27 January.

' Force 63 ' then proceeded to the launch position for the second phase of operation during which air attacks were to be made on oil installations at Soengi-Gerong (also near Palembang). 48 Avenger, 10 Fireflies, 24 Corsairs and 16 Hellcats were launched. During dogfight 30 Japanese aircraft were shot down and another 38 were reported as having been destroyed on the ground. 16 aircraft did not return to the carriers.

A Japanese counter attack with 12 bombers failed. All were shot down by fighters from the Combat Air Patrol or AA fire from the ships.

' Force 63 ' then fuelled again from ' Force 69 ' on 30 January.

' Force 63 ' arrived at Fremantle on 4 February 1945.

' Force 69 ', minus Arndale and Wave King returned to Trincomalee on 6 February 1945. The other two tankers went to Australia. HMS Ceylon had parted company with ' Force 69 ' on 4 February and arrived at Trincomalee on 5 February.

5 Feb 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) returned to Trincomalee from operations. (34)

16 Feb 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. Before returning to harbour she ran over the D/G range. (34)

19 Feb 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Trincomalee for Madras. The Commander-in-Chief East Indies Station, (A/Adm. A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN), was on board. (34)

20 Feb 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Madras. The departed for Calcutta later the same day. (34)

22 Feb 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Calcutta. (34)

28 Feb 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Calcutta for Trincomalee. (34)

2 Mar 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (35)

7 Mar 1945
During 7/8 March 1945 HMS London (Capt. S.L. Bateson, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (36)

21 Mar 1945
During 21/22 March 1945, HMS London (Capt. S.L. Bateson, RN), HMS Newcastle (Capt. J.G. Roper, OBE, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and HMS Kenya (Capt. C.L. Robertson, RN) and HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN). The cruisers were later joined by three destroyers. (24)

27 Mar 1945
During 27/28 March 1945 the battleship Richelieu (Capt. Merveilleux du Vignaux), heavy cruiser HMS London (Capt. S.L. Bateson, RN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN) and HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. (24)

2 Apr 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN) departed Trincomalee for Colombo. (37)

3 Apr 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN) arrived at Colombo. (37)

5 Apr 1945
Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN, struck his flag on board HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN). (37)

7 Apr 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is docked at Colombo. (37)

12 Apr 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) is undocked. (37)

16 Apr 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) departed Colombo for Trincomalee. (37)

17 Apr 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (37)

27 Apr 1945

Operation Bishop.

Carrier raid and surface bombardment of Car Nicobar and Port Blair and to provide cover for Operation Dracula which are amphibious landings off Rangoon, Burma.

On 27 April 1945 ships from the Eastern Fleet put to sea from Trincomalee, Ceylon for operation Bishop. These ships formed Task ' Force 63 '. This task force was, at that moment, made up of the following ships: battleships HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. R.M. Ellis, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral H.C.T. Walker, CB, RN), Richelieu (Capt. Merveilleux du Vignaux), escort carriers HMS Shah (Capt. W.J. Yendell, RN), HMS Empress (Capt. J.R.S. Brown, RN), heavy cruisers HMS Cumberland (Capt. P.K. Enright, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN), HMS Suffolk (Capt. D. Gilmour, RN), light cruisers HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN), HrMs Tromp (A/Capt. F. Stam, RNN) and the destroyers HMS Rotherham (Capt. H.W. Biggs, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Tartar (Capt. B. Jones, DSO and Bar, DSC, RN) and HMS Penn (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Diack, DSC and Bar, RN). Two more destroyers were sent out to join this task force later; HMS Nubian (Lt.Cdr. F.C. Brodrick, RN) and HMS Verulam (Lt.Cdr. D.H.R. Bromley, DSC, RN). These two destroyers actually joined on the 29th.

An oiling force (Task Force 69), made up of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary tankers Olwen (6470 GRT, built 1917) and Easedale (8032 GRT, built 1942) escorted by the destroyer HMS Paladin (Lt. H.R. Hewlett, RN) had departed Trinomalee on the 26th. HrMs Tromp and the destroyers were fuelled from this force on the 29th.

At dawn on the 30th air attacks were carried out against Car Nicobar followed by a bombardment of the airfields At 0600/30, HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Cumberland opened fire on the southern and northern airfields respectively from a range of 18000 yards Both ships soon found the range and it was not possible for any aircraft to take off after the bombardment. HMS Suffolk and HMS Ceylon then bombarded enemy AA positions. Shortly after sunrise around 0700 hours the destroyers HMS Rotherham, HMS Nubian and HMS Verulam started to bombard the settlement of Malacca. Soon afterwards a large fire, thought to be petrol, was seen near the jetty and another on one the southern airfield. At 0710 hours cease fire was ordered and a fighter strike was then commenced. They dropped bombs on and then strafed the airfields. At 0735 hours, after the fighter strike was over, the battleshios HMS Queen Elizabeth and Richelieu opened fire to crater the runways. They continued to fire on the runways until 0805 and 0809 respectively. Capt. (D) 11th destroyer flotilla on board HMS Rotherham meanwhile reported that the jetty at Malacca had been severly damaged and that two steam coasters and five small vessels had been destroyed.

At 1530/30, Richelieu, HMS Cumberland and HMS Rotherham were sent ahead to bombard Port Blair while on a northerly course. At 1730 hours Richelieu opened fire on the southern airfield and Cumberland on a coastal battery. Both firings were spotted by Hellcat fighters from the escort carriers. Later HMS Rotherham also engaged coastal batteries but from a closer range. Around 1835 hours these ships completed their bombardment but then HMS Queen Elizabeth, HMS Suffolk, HrMs Tromp, HMS Tartar and HMS Penn took over. Queen Elizabeth engaged the airfields while Suffolk worked over the marine yards with the same aircraft that had spotted for Richelieu and Cumberland. The other three ships engaged shore batteries. By the time the bombardment ceased after about 40 minutes the airfields were well cratered and hits were obtained on a lot of other targets. After the bombardment HrMs Tromp reported that she had seven wounded, two seriously (they both died later) from two near misses, at least that was thought at that moment. Later investigation however showed that the explosion was caused by American manufactured defective ammunition and not by enemy fire. Both bombarding forces then retired to the south an re-joined the escort carriers which had provided them with fighter cover during their bombardments.

During the night all ships proceeded southwards so as to bombard Car Nicobar a second time at dawn. At 0720/1 HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Suffolk opened fire on their target. After cratering the northern airfield Queen Elizabeth shifted target to the southern airfield at 0741 hours and carried out yet another effective shoot. At 0755 hours both ships ceased fire. HMS Cumberland and HMS Ceylon then took over. The French battleship Richelieu however did not participate in the bombardment this time as she had already expended her ammunition allowance. Cumberland enganged targets at/near the northern airfield and HMS Ceylon did the same working over the southern airfield. HMS Tartar was sent ahead to bombard the jetty at and targets in the village of Malacca. At 0915 hours all ships were again in one force and course was set to the north to conduct another bombardment of Port Blair but this time approaching from the north.

At 0800/2 HMS Queen Elizabeth opened fire on the runways of the airports and HMS Suffolk on coastal batteries. Again considerable damage was done to the airports and also a large petrol fire was started at one of them. At 0845 hours Richelieu (firing 6” from her secondary armament at the marine jetty) and HMS Cumberland took over. HMS Rotherham was ordered to take out an AA battery that was firing at the spotter aircraft and in this she succeded.

In the afternoon a signal was received that the landing off Rangoon had been successful and without opposition. The force now retired to the north-east for her cover position during operation Dracula.

On 4 May rendes-vous was again made with the oiling force and all ships were fueled by the Olwen. HMS Penn then remained with the Olwen while HMS Paladin joined Task Force 64.

On 6 May bombardments and air strikes were again carried out in the Port Blair area. As of 0700/6 HMS Empress started to launch fourteen Hellcats while HMS Shah launched eight Avengers and four Hellcats. At 0800 hours, HMS Queen Elizabeth, HMS Suffolk, HrMs Tromp and HMS Paladin opened fire on AA and coastal batteries in the vicinity of Phoenix Harbour, Hopetown Island and Ross Island in order to neutralise these defences for the air strike. At 0814 hours the air strike leaded ordered cease fire and a few minutes later the aircraft started attacking shipping inside Port Blair harbour. One aircraft was hit by enemy AA fire and failed to return to it’s carrier. HMS Tartar made a search for it but was unable to locate the aircraft or it’s pilot.

At 1730/6 HMS Queen Elizabeth bombarded a 6” gun known to be at Stewart Sound. The bombardment was completed at 1809 hours. HMS Suffolk meanwhile bombarded a pillbox on Sound Island with her 4” armament and appeared to have set the target on fire.

On 7 May another air attack was made on Car Nicobar by the carriers with a total of 10 Hellcats. With this air attack over course was set to return to Trincomalee.

A part of Task Force 63 returned to Trincomalee on 7 May, these were Richelieu, HMS Cumberland, HMS Ceylon, most likely escorted by HMS Rotherham, HMS Verulam and HMS Penn.

The other ships returned on 9 May. (38)

17 May 1945
During 17/18 May 1945, HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) and HMS Attacker (Capt. G.F. Renwick, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (39)

29 May 1945
During 29/30 May 1945, HMS Suffolk (Capt. D. Gilmour, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (40)

30 May 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) departed Trincomalee to provide cover for (smaller) warships operating close inshore off the Burmese coast. (41)

9 Jun 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) arrived at Rangoon. (42)

10 Jun 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) departed Rangoon to provide cover for (smaller) warships operating close inshore off the Burmese coast. (42)

13 Jun 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) arrived at Rangoon from patrol. (42)

17 Jun 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) departed Rangoon for Akyab. (42)

18 Jun 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) arrived at Akyab. She departed for Trincomalee later the same day. (42)

20 Jun 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (42)

12 Jul 1945
During 12/13 July 1945, HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN), HMS Cleopatra (Capt. B.I. Robertshaw, CBE, RN), HMS Rotherham (Capt. H.W. Biggs, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Racehorse (Cdr. J.J. Casement, DSC, RN) and HMS Relentless (Lt.Cdr. G.B. Barstow, RN), conducted exercises off Trincomalee. These included night exercises. (43)

17 Jul 1945
HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) departed Trincomalee for Bombay. (44)

20 Jul 1945
HMS Nigeria (Capt. H.A. King, DSO, RN) and HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) arrived at Bombay. (44)

27 Jul 1945
Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN hoisted his flag in HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) which then departed Bombay for Colombo. (45)

29 Jul 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN, flying the Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN) arrived at Colombo where she was immediately docked.

[We currently have no information on when she was undocked as there is no log available for HMS Ceylon after July 1945.] (45)

31 Jul 1945
Rear-Admiral W.R. Patterson, CB, CVO, RN struck his flag in HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN). (45)

11 Aug 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) departed Colombo for Trincomalee. (46)

12 Aug 1945
HMS Ceylon (Capt. K.L. Harkness, DSC, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (47)

Sources

  1. ADM 53/117183
  2. ADM 53/117184
  3. ADM 173/18137
  4. ADM 53/117184 + ADM 53/117185
  5. ADM 53/117185
  6. ADM 53/117186
  7. ADM 53/ + ADM 53/117186
  8. ADM 53/117187
  9. ADM 53/117188
  10. ADM 53/117188 + ADM 199/643
  11. ADM 53/119110 + ADM 53/119642 + ADM 53/120136 + ADM 53/120587
  12. ADM 53/119110 + ADM 53/119328 + ADM 120568
  13. ADM 53/119110 + ADM 53/119328
  14. ADM 53/119110
  15. ADM 53/119111
  16. ADM 199/1388
  17. Files 2.12.03.6853, 2.12.27.121 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands) and ADM 199/1388
  18. ADM 53/119113
  19. Files 2.12.03.6853 and 2.12.27.121 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands) and WO 203 / 4621 (British National Archives, Kew, London)
  20. ADM 53/119114
  21. Files 2.12.03.6853 and 2.12.27.121 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands) and WO 203 / 4767 (British National Archives, Kew, London)
  22. ADM 53/119115 + ADM 53/119482 + ADM 53/119647 + ADM 53/120165
  23. ADM 53/119116
  24. File 2.12.03.6854 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands)
  25. Files 2.12.03.6854 and 2.12.27.121 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands) and WO 203 / 4622 (British National Archives, Kew, London)
  26. ADM 53/119117
  27. ADM 53/119117 + ADM 53/119484 + ADM 53/119649 + ADM 53/120167
  28. Files 2.12.03.6854 and 2.12.27.121 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands) and WO 203 / 4980 (British National Archives, Kew, London)
  29. ADM 53/119118
  30. ADM 53/119119
  31. ADM 53/119121
  32. ADM 53/120579
  33. ADM 199/1457
  34. ADM 53/121086
  35. ADM 53/121087
  36. ADM 53/121087 + ADM 53/121694
  37. ADM 53/121088
  38. Files 2.12.03.6854 and 2.12.27.121 (Dutch Archives, The Hague, Netherlands) and WO 203 / 4778 and ADM 199 / 193 (British National Archives, Kew, London)
  39. ADM 53/120915 + ADM 53/121089
  40. ADM 53/121089 + ADM 53/122325
  41. ADM 53/121089 + ADM 53/121090 + ADM 199/1457
  42. ADM 53/121090
  43. ADM 53/121091 + ADM 53/121110
  44. ADM 53/121091 + ADM 53/121923
  45. ADM 53/121091
  46. ADM 199/2550
  47. ADM 53/121924

ADM numbers indicate documents at the British National Archives at Kew, London.


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